Academic Papers

Assuming you’re an avid reader of this blog, you’ll be aware that most of the blog’s post’s, are written to review the latest innovative medical devices.

These new medical devices designed to assist Patient’s suffering from life’s threatening illnesses.

Medical scientists are actively involved in groundbreaking research. Research that when adapted to this new technology, can assist people that are critically ill or suffering from horrific injuries.

We are providing some of their research papers; we’ve used to develop our research. You can look at the full articles by clicking on the links embedded in the summary.



Transcriptome-wide isoform-level dysregulation in ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder


Our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), and bipolar disorder (BD), lags behind other fields of medicine. The diagnosis and study of these disorders currently depend on behavioral, symptomatic characterization. Defining genetic contributions to disease risk allows for biological, mechanistic understanding but is challenged by genetic complexity, polygenicity, and the lack of a cohesive neurobiological model to interpret findings.


The transcriptome represents a quantitative phenotype that provides biological context for understanding the molecular pathways disrupted in major psychiatric disorders. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in a large cohort of cases and controls can advance our knowledge of the biology disrupted in each disorder and provide a foundational resource for integration with genomic and genetic data.

Nerve Cells in the human Brain Can Count


Single Neurons in the Human Brain Encode Numbers

Our human-specific symbolic number skills that underpin science and technology spring from nonsymbolic set size representations. Despite the significance of numerical competence, its single-neuron mechanisms in the human brain are unknown.

We therefore recorded from single neurons in the medial temporal lobe of neurosurgical patients that performed a calculation task. We found that distinct groups of neurons represented either nonsymbolic or symbolic number, but not both number formats simultaneously.

Numerical information could be decoded robustly from the population of neurons tuned to the nonsymbolic number and with lower accuracy also from the population of neurons selective to number symbols.

The tuning characteristics of selective neurons may explain why set size is represented only approximately in behavior, whereas number symbols allow exact assessments of numerical values. Our results suggest number neurons as  basis of human number representations that ultimately give rise to number theory and mathematics.


Working memory Load Modulates Neuronal Couping.


There is a severe limitation in the number of items that can be held in working memory. However, the neurophysiological limits remain unknown. We asked whether differences in a neuronal coupling might explain the capacity limit.

We developed a theoretical model based on Predictive Coding and used it to analyze Cross Spectral Density data from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), frontal eye fields (FEF), and lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Monkeys performed a change detection task. The number of objects that had to be remembered (memory load) was varied (1–3 objects in the same visual hemifield).

Changes in memory load changed the connectivity in the PFC–FEF–LIP network. Feedback (top-down) coupling broke down when the number of objects exceeded cognitive capacity. Thus, impaired behavioral performance coincided with a break-down of Prediction signals. This provides new insights into the neuronal underpinnings of cognitive capacity and how coupling in a distributed working memory network is affected by memory load.

No Future for Egotists – That’s What Their Brain Says.

Summary: A new neuroimaging study reveals people who consider themselves to be egotistical have no increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex when they think about the distant future.

By contrast, altruistic people have increased activity in this region when asked to consider the consequences of the distant future.

Source: University of Geneva.

Network oscillation rules imposed by species-specific electrical coupling

Summary: Researchers from the Karolinska Institute have made an important discovery that could impact neuroscience research. Researchers found TIDA neurons have different wiring in rats and mice.

This is due to mice lacking gap junctions. Findings have inspired scientists to create a new model for studying the role of gap junctions in the brain.

Source: Karolinska Institute.

5-HT2a receptor in mPFC influences context-guided reconsolidation of object memory in perirhinal cortex


Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Partial and shared cues can trigger retrieval.

When the cue is presented, the most critical memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories.

We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. Also, reconsolidation of objects memories in PRH required a functional interaction between the ventral hippocampus and the mPFC.

Our results indicate that in the presence of conflicting information at retrieval, mPFC 5-HT2aR may facilitate top-down context-guided control over PRH to control the behavioral response and object memory reconsolidation.

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